Voxel block format v4

Version: 4

This page describes the binary format used by default in this module to serialize voxel blocks to files, network or databases.

Changes from version 3

  • Metadata uses a new format which no longer has to depend on Godot Engine (can still use Variant but other options are available internally).



By default, little-endian.

Compressed container

A block is usually serialized within a compressed data container. This is the format provided by the VoxelBlockSerializer utility class. If you don't use compression, the layout will correspond to BlockData described in the next listing, and won't have this wrapper. See Compressed container format for specification.

Block format

It starts with version number 4 in one byte, then some info and the actual voxels. Optionally, it is followed by custom metadata.


The size and formats are present to make the format standalone. When used within a chunked container like region files, it is recommended to check if they match the format expected for the volume as a whole.

- version: uint8_t
- size_x: uint16_t
- size_y: uint16_t
- size_z: uint16_t
- channels[8]
- metadata*
- epilogue


Block data starts with exactly 8 channels one after the other, each with the following structure:

- format: uint8_t (low nibble = compression, high nibble = depth)
- data

format contains both compression and bit depth, respectively known as VoxelBuffer::Compression and VoxelBuffer::Depth enums. The low nibble contains compression, and the high nibble contains depth. Depending on those values, data will be different.

Depth can be 0 (8-bit), 1 (16-bit), 2 (32-bit) or 3 (64-bit).

If compression is COMPRESSION_NONE (0), data will be an array of N*S bytes, where N is the number of voxels inside a block, multiplied by the number of bytes corresponding to the bit depth. For example, a block of size 16x16x16 and a channel of 32-bit depth will have 16*16*16*4 bytes to load from the file into this channel. The 3D indexing of that data is in order ZXY.

If compression is COMPRESSION_UNIFORM (1), the data will be a single voxel value, which means all voxels in the block have that same value. Unused channels will always use this mode. The value spans the same number of bytes defined by the depth.

Other compression values are invalid.

SDF channel

The second channel (at index 1) is used for SDF data. If depth is 8 or 16 bits, it may contain fixed-point values encoded as inorm8 or inorm16. This is numbers in the range [-1..1].

To obtain a float from an int8, use max(i / 127, -1.f). To obtain a float from an int16, use max(i / 32767, -1.f).

For 32-bit depth, regular float are used. For 64-bit depth, regular double are used.


After all channels information, block data can contain metadata information. Blocks that don't contain any will only have a fixed amount of bytes left (from the epilogue) before reaching the size of the total data to read. If there is more, the block contains metadata.

- metadata_size: uint32_t
- block_metadata: MetadataItem
- voxel_metadata: VoxelMetadataItem[*]

- x: uint16_t
- y: uint16_t
- z: uint16_t
- metadata: MetadataItem

It starts with one 32-bit unsigned integer representing the total size of all metadata there is to read. That data comes in two groups: one for the whole block, and a list that associates one per voxel (not all voxels have metadata).

Each metadata item uses the following format:

- type: uint8_t
- data

It starts with a type header, followed by data depending on that type.

  • If type is 0, the item is empty and there is no data to read.
  • If type is 1, it is followed by 8 bytes (uint64_t).
  • If type is 32, it is followed by a Godot Engine Variant, encoded using the encode_variant function. This is only available when using Godot Engine.
  • If type is greater than 32, the following data is application-defined. The application usually knows which data corresponds to that type and defines how to serialize and deserialize it.

The meaning of metadata is application-defined. Two games using different metadata are not expected to be compatible.


At the very end, block data finishes with a sequence of 4 bytes, which once read into a uint32_t integer must match the value 0x900df00d. If that condition isn't fulfilled, the block must be assumed corrupted.


On little-endian architectures (like desktop), binary editors will not show the epilogue as 0x900df00d, but as 0x0df00d90 instead.

Current Issues


The format is intented to use little-endian, however the implementation of the engine does not fully guarantee this.

Godot's encode_variant doesn't seem to care about endianess across architectures, so it's possible it becomes a problem in the future and gets changed to a custom format. The implementation of block channels with depth greater than 8-bit currently doesn't consider this either. This might be refined in a later iteration.

This will become important to address if voxel games require communication between mobile and desktop.